BITSE (Balloon-borne Investigation of Temperature and Speed of Electrons)
Developed by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) / NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)
Balloon launched on 9/18/2019, from Scientific Flight Balloon Facility, Fort Sumner, (NM), US
Description of the payload
BITSE was the acronym of Balloon-borne Investigation of Temperature and Speed of Electrons in the corona. It was an optical instrument telescope-like called coronagraph which block the Sun's bright surface to reveal its faint, but very hot upper atmosphere called the corona. The ultimate goal of BITSE was to explain how the Sun spits out the solar wind which is the stream of charged particles that constantly blows from the Sun's outer atmosphere, washing over the entire solar system. While scientists generally know where it forms, exactly how it does so remains a mystery.
BITSE was a technological demonstrator of a new way to study the solar wind. While standard coronagraphs captured the corona's density, BITSE also measured the temperature and speed of electrons in the solar wind to help understand the powerful forces that accelerate them to speeds of 1 million miles per hour. BITSE combined several important technologies. First, the instrument was constructed with a single occulting stage. Then, there was a special camera that captured polarized light.
Typical coronagraphs use a wheel that cycles through polarizer filters —each oriented to different angles— and combine the images to get the polarized light. BITSE's polarization camera analyzed the observations pixel by pixel, making the process more reliable by reducing the number of moving parts.
BITSE also had a filter wheel, which blocked out all the corona's light except for four specific wavelengths. The ratios of these different wavelengths provided scientists with the temperature and speed of electrons in the corona — measurements they can't obtain from the ground, even during an eclipse. An onboard thermal system ensured that BITSE doesn't get too cold during its ascent.
BITSE was mounted on a stabilized gondola developed at Goddard Space Center called the WASP (Wallops Arc Second Pointer). It provided during the flight the fine pointing to the sun and stabilization required for the mission.
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