Details of the balloon and launch operations
Launch site:Centre de Lancement de Ballons CLBA, Aire Sur L'Adour, Landes, France
Launch team: CNES
Balloon: Open balloon model 402z Zodiac - 400.000 m3
Serial number: 402Z Nº 79
Flight identification number: -
Campaign: THESEO (Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone) take place during 1998-99 to improve the understanding of the causes of ozone depletion over Europe and other mid-latitude regions. It involved more than 400 scientists from over 20 countries.
Payload weight: 944 kgs
Gondola weight: 613 kgs
Overall weight: -
>>Flight data not available<<
Description of the payload or experiment
MIPAS-B2 (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - Balloonborne) + SFINX
Responsable institution: Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung - Universität Karlsruhe
Principal Investigator: Hermann Oelhaf
It is an advanced Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectrometer specially tailored to the operation on a stratospheric balloon gondola. It allows precise limb emission sounding of chemical constituents related to the stratospheric ozone problem and the greenhouse effect. This method is appropriate to obtain vertical profiles of ozone and a considerable number of key radicals (NO, NO2), reservoir species (HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2) as well as source gases (CH4, N2O, H2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-22, CCl4, CF4, C2H6, and SF6) simultaneously, with an altitude resolution of 2 to 3 km.
The MIPAS-B experiment was also thought as precursor for a space version of MIPAS actually installed onboard ENVISAT.
The instrument is divided in five operational segments:
(1) the gondola,
(2) the line-of-sight (LOS) stabilization and reference system,
(3) the cryogenic spectrometer,
(4) the on-board electronics, and
(5) the ground control equipment
The gondola is a frame construction, developed by the Geneva Observatory, combining high stability and safety with relatively low weight and easy servicing.
The LOS system is based on a miniaturized inertial navigation system with embedded GPS (Global Positioning System) that provides the attitude and heading reference of the instrument frame needed for the control loop to maintain the LOS within 300 m at the tangent point. A CCD star camera takes images of stars in the direction of the LOS that are used as absolute reference.
The spectrometer consists of a three-mirror off-axis telescope, a double-pendulum interferometer, and a four channel liquid-He cooled infrared detector system. The heart of the instrument is the double pendulum interferometer, a modification of the classical Michelson set-up. The four-channel detector system allows the simultaneous coverage of the most important absorption bands of ozone-relevant molecules between 5.2 and 13.3 µm.
The analogue data is sampled on-board, mixed with the information of the other channels and the housekeeping data, and sent to ground via telemetry at a data rate of 250 kbit/s. An uplink connection of 1200 bit/s ensures full commandability of the instrument during flight.
On ground, the raw data is split up again and stored immediately in a data base. At the same time, housekeeping data and interferograms can be viewed and processed to allow on-line evaluation of measured data and of instrumental health.
Performance in flight and data obtained
This was the flight # 8 of MIPAS-B2 and the second including as "Piggy Back" instrument a high resolution spectrometer for the far infrared called SFINX (SRON Fabry-Perot interferometer experiment), designed for balloon operation and composed of a small telescope and a cryogenic detection system based on liquid helium.
External references and bibliographical sources
- MIPAS web site Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung - Universität Karlsruhe