The community of Churchill is located at the estuary of the river of the same name, 965 kilometers northeast of Winnipeg in the southwest shore of Hudson Bay. Initially land of hunters, explorers and adventurers, with the arrival of the train in 1929 became an active port to send grains for Europe.

Preparation of a stratospheric balloon from the airport runway in Fort Churchill

After the Second World War started in 1942, the United States Air Force -with Canadian approval- built an airport there. Its main function was to strengthen and safeguard the vital intercontinental air routes, a task for which Churchill had a strategic geographical position. After the war, Canada bought the facilities back, mainly to safeguard its sovereignty and the control of the base which from that moment would be operated by the Canadian Department of National Defence.

During the first years of the Cold War, the airport was a key factor not only in developing much of the isolated towns and bases in the Arctic, but also played an essential role in building the mythical DEW line (Defense Early Warning) conformed by several surveillance radars and observation posts which served as an advanced defence against a potential Soviet attack coming from the north pole. Those years marked also the start of the balloon launch activities in the area. The closeness of Churchill with the north pole and the high geomagnetic latitude where it was located gave special interest for those branches of science trying to unravel the enigma around the cosmic radiation. The first scientists to make these launches were from the Bartol Research Foundation, affiliated at that time at the Franklin Institute whom in conjunction with the National Geographic Society organized an expedition to Churchill with the aim of launching balloons carrying emulsion plates and instruments for measuring cosmic rays. These flights were acomplished using huge "trains" of several neoprene balloons flown in tandem during the summer of 1952.

In 1957 was established 16 kms south of the base, the Fort Churchill Rocket Range, one of the first sites used to launch scientific rockets in the world and the only of its kind in Canada. During the International Geophysical Year (IGY) were launched from there several rockets instrumented to study the space geomagnetism and the Northern Lights.

In early 60's, started an annual program aimed to launch huge stratospheric balloons under the auspices of the "Skyhook" program from the Office of Naval Research (ONR), of the Navy. These launches known as "Skyhook Churchill" were carried out each year for more than a decade.

The continuity of the balloon flights along so many years had its origin in two fundamental factors: the aforementioned location of the site from a scientific point of view and the highly developed infrastructure available. The presence in the area of a major military base (Fort Churchill), coupled with the rocket launch complex and the huge airport offered logistics support unthinkable elsewhere. Additionally, the railway development, allowed the efficient movement of heavy equipment throughout the year without relying on expensive air transportation or the sea routes which where usable only when the Hudson bay was free of ice.

Balloon launch from Churchill airport

Each campaign started in the early summer, not only because of weather issues but mainly to allow the thawing of the thousands of lakes scattered by the Canadian tundra which were used for landing the seaplanes used in the search and retrieval of payloads. Generally, the launch window was closed in mid-August. No balloon was launched after that date because as stratospheric winds began to change its direction, the balloons would move westward over the Ocean.

Each campaign was very intense and involved between 15 and 40 flights, not only from the local airport, but also from several isolated villages and towns scattered throughout the tundra. One of them, Uranium City -located on the north shore of Lake Athabasca- was the center of operations for the rescue team in charge of the search and recovery of the payloads. For this task, they had an helicopter and two seaplanes: while one of the planes followed the gondola while falling under his parachute and marked the landing place, the helicopter located the payload and transported it aside a lake, where the other seaplane landed picked it up and transported it back to Uranium City. Once there the cargo was shipped aboard a C-47 "Dakota" back to Churchill.

The "Skyhook" campaigns were carried out every summer until the last one in 1975, and performed experiments in several scientific fields, mainly for NASA, Navy's ONR and several US universities .

Although since the end of the Skyhook flights have not been launched other stratospheric balloons from there, in recent years took place some isolated experiments using small balloons. These later experiences were carried out by the Physics Department of Dartmouth College.

Table of balloons launched from Churchill, Manitoba

DateHourFlight DurationExperimentPayload landing place or cause of the failure
8/29/195711:36 utcF 2 hIONIZATION CHAMBER + DOUBLE COINCIDENCE COUNTER TELESCOPE + GEIGER COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/1/19571:26 utcF 7 h 50 mIONIZATION CHAMBER + DOUBLE COINCIDENCE COUNTER TELESCOPE + GEIGER COUNTER--- No Data ---
8/4/195911:44 utc---GEIGER COUNTER + IONIZATION CHAMBER + COUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/8/195911:02 utcF 4 hIONIZATION CHAMBER + COUNTER TELESCOPE + SCINTILLATOR--- No Data ---
8/13/19599:05 utcF 2 h 5 mGEIGER COUNTER + IONIZATION CHAMBER + COUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/16/195910:53 utc6 hIONIZATION CHAMBER + COUNTER TELESCOPE + SCINTILLATOR--- No Data ---
8/17/195911:51 utc6 hIONIZATION CHAMBER + COUNTER TELESCOPE + SCINTILLATOR--- No Data ---
8/22/195914:03 utcF 6 hIONIZATION CHAMBER + COUNTER TELESCOPE + SCINTILLATOR--- No Data ---
6/27/19606:24 utc9 h 30 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
6/27/196019:01 utc19 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
6/28/196018:43 utc16 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
6/29/196016:20 utc14 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
6/30/196012:52 utc13 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/8/196016:45 utc10 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/9/19607:58 utc13 h 15 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/13/196016:46 utc5 h 30 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/15/19607:51 utc13 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/16/19607:54 utc22 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/18/196011:57 utc2 h 15 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/21/196017:44 utc19 h 45 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/31/196021:25 utc19 h 15 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/3/19607:30 utc6 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/6/196014:07 utc---ION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/10/1960------ION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/16/19603:29 utc27 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/18/19602:44 utc30 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/19/196016:42 utc40 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/22/1960 ~ 9 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/23/196013:53 utc7 h 30 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/26/1960 F 8 hEMULSION STACK--- No Data ---
9/1/19603:43 utc26 h 15 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
9/2/196020:12 utc32 h 30 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
9/3/196015:00 utc5 hNUCLEAR EMULSIONS--- No Data ---
9/4/196021:01 utc13 h 45 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
9/6/19602:17 utc25 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
9/7/19603:41 utc25 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
9/8/1960 ~ 9 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
9/15/19602:01 utc22 h 30 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
9/15/1960 ~ 9 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
11/2/196013:20 utc11 h 15 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
11/4/196011:10 utc10 h 15 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
11/5/196011:00 utc13 h 15 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
11/7/196000:15 utc6 h 30 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
11/9/196006:00 utc13 h 45 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
11/11/19603:07 utc9 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
11/12/1960------ION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
11/13/19605:45 utc13 h 45 mION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
11/14/196017:15 utc3 h 30 mNUCLEAR EMULSIONS--- No Data ---
11/16/196022:15 utc24 hION CHAMBER + BRASS & ALUMINUM GEIGER COUNTERS + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
6/30/19613:58 UTC19 h 2 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/4/19614:27 UTC14 h 6 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/6/19614:09 UTC16 hION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/8/19614:02 utc13 h 5 mNUCLEAR EMULSIONS--- No Data ---
7/8/19616:45 UTC14 h 45 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/11/1961 ---ION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/11/196120:37 UTC19 h 23 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/12/196122:05 UTC19 h 20 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/12/19615:10 UTC10 hNUCLEAR EMULSIONS--- No Data ---
7/12/196117:33 UTC18 h 57 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/13/196120:52 UTC16 h 38 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/14/196115:58 UTC17 h 2 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/15/196112:06 UTC---ION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/15/196121:22 UTC16 h 8 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/16/196117:21 UTC19 h 39 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/18/196122:04 UTC19 h 41 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/18/196115:22 UTC23 h 38 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/19/196117:48 UTC19 h 12 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/20/196111:07 UTC14 h 53 mSOLAR FLARE DETECTOR UNIT--- No Data ---
7/21/196111:00 utcF 2 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/21/19612:58 UTC16 h 2 mSOLAR FLARE DETECTOR UNIT--- No Data ---
7/21/196122:46 UTC17 h 44 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/25/19614:37 utc+ 23 h 38 mSOLAR FLARE DETECTOR UNIT--- No Data ---
7/26/19614:37 utc+ 26 h 3 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/28/196122:38 utc+ 19 h 22 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/29/196112:00 utcF 10 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/1/196112:00 utcF 10 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/2/19615:03 utc+ 19 h 37 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/3/19615:58 utc+ 45 h 30 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/6/1961 F 5 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/8/1961 F 9 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/10/19612:28 utc+ 50 h 32 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/17/19612:02 utc+ 52 h 58 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/24/19612:43 utc+ 51 h 4 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/1/19623:58 UTC11 h 32 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/6/19625:50 UTC7 h 10 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
7/7/19626:00 UTC7 hSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
7/15/19627:45 UTC13 h 45 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/4/1962 F 13 h 52 mEMULSION STACK--- No Data ---
8/7/1962 ---MAGNETIC CLOUD CHAMBER--- No Data ---
8/10/1962 F 8 hPROTONS DETECTOR--- No Data ---
8/23/196219:15 UTC9 h 15 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/25/19628:25 UTC18 h 20 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/28/19622:45 UTC4 h 37 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
9/19/19627:30 UTC18 h 9 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/19/196223:15 UTC21 h 43 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/21/196223:25 UTC10 h 55 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
9/24/196223:57 UTC11 h 3 mEIGHT CHANNELS SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/26/19625:45 UTC14 h 15 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/29/19626:50 UTC8 h 40 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/30/19621:00 UTC8 h 40 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/30/196211:00 UTC6 hEIGHT CHANNELS SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
10/10/19628:00 UTC2 h 47 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
10/12/19622:14 utc12 h 16 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
10/30/19621:40 UTC6 h 20 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
6/15/1963 F 11 h 15 mEMULSION STACK--- No Data ---
6/18/1963 F 11 h 5 mEMULSION STACK--- No Data ---
6/19/1963 10 hNUCLEAR EMULSIONS--- No Data ---
6/27/1963 14 hCOSMIC RAY COUNTERS--- No Data ---
7/28/1963 12 hMAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBER--- No Data ---
7/28/1963 10 h 30 mEMULSIONS--- No Data ---
8/1/1963 ---EMULSIONSBalloon burst during ascent
8/3/1963 12 hORIENTED NUCLEAR EMULSIONS--- No Data ---
8/5/1963 12 hMAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBER--- No Data ---
8/7/1963 14 hSCINTILLATION COUNTERS + EMULSION PLATES--- No Data ---
8/8/1963 12 hSCINTILLATION COUNTERS--- No Data ---
8/13/19633:33 UTC36 h 55 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/21/19632:50 UTC17 h 33 mION CHAMBER + SINGLE GEIGER COUNTER + GEIGER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/23/1963 ---POCIBO 2 (Polar Circling Balloon Observatory # 2)--- No Data ---
8/26/1963 ---POCIBO 1 (Polar Circling Balloon Observatory # 1)--- No Data ---
6/16/19645:58 utc1 h 8 mCOUNTERS + EMULSIONSBalloon burst at 35.000 ft
6/18/19648:32 utc13 h 57 mdE/dx AND E DETECTOR + EMULSIONSNear Livingstone Lake, Ontario, Canada
6/21/19646:38 utc14 h 17 mdE/dx AND E DETECTOR + EMULSIONSAt coordinates 106° 04' O / 59º 43' N, Canada
6/21/19649:43 utc15 h 42 mEMULSIONSAt coordinates 103° 58' W / 59º 28' N, Canada
6/23/19647:19 utc---COUNTERSBalloon split open after release
6/24/19644:15 utc15 h 17 mCOUNTERS + EMULSIONSAt coordinates 107° 07' W / 58º 23' N, Canada
7/1/19643:15 utc---EMULSIONSEmulsion stack flipped at launch. Flight Terminated at once
7/3/19649:15 utc15 h 31 mEMULSIONSAt coordinates 107° 37' W / 59º 14' N, Canada
7/4/19649:28 utc11 h 55 mIONIZING RADIATION STUDY20 miles S of Ft. Churchill, Canada
7/8/19648:24 utc11 h 45 mIONIZING RADIATION STUDY100 miles SW of Ft. Churchill, Canada
7/10/19644:20 utc13 h 42 mIONIZING RADIATION STUDY90 miles E of Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada
7/16/19648:34 utc14 h 16 mMAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBERAt coordinates 103º 18' W / 58º 44' N, Canada
7/18/19648:32 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTERBalloon burst at 37.000 ft
7/19/19643:24 utc14 h 33 mEMULSIONS85 miles S of Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, Canada
7/22/19649:18 utc16 h 51 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER110 miles from Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, Canada
7/22/19641:32 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTERAborted flight
7/22/19647:17 utc14 h 16 mEMULSIONS8 miles E of Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, Canada
7/26/19643:45 utc16 h 58 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER65 miles NE of Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, Canada
7/27/19643:38 utc1 hSPARK CHAMBERBalloon burst at 34.000 ft
7/28/19648:17 utc16 h 46 mSPARK CHAMBERSouth end of Reindeer Lake, Canada
7/28/196410:59 utc1 hSPARK CHAMBERBalloon burst at 95.000 ft
7/29/19644:22 utc20 h 38 mSCINTILLATION COUNTEROn a lake shore 130 miles S of Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, Canada
8/4/196421:48 utc21 hCOSMIC RAY STUDIES60 miles SE of Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, Canada
8/8/19642:49 utc1 h 21 mSCINTILLATION COUNTERBalloon burst at 60.500 ft
8/8/196410:19 utc32 mMAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBERBalloon burst at 23.400 ft
8/9/19642:56 utc21 h 4 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER130 miles SW of Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, Canada
8/12/19643:28 utc+ 41 hSCINTILLATION COUNTERFailure of the termination system. Payload never recovered.
8/12/196423:16 utc1 h 37 mCOSMIC RAY STUDIESBalloon burst at 65.000 ft
8/13/19643:13 utc1 h 4 mMAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBERBalloon burst at 41.000 ft
8/14/19641:56 utc22 h 48 mCOSMIC RAY STUDIES130 miles ESE of Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, Canada
8/16/1964 ---COUNTERSBalloon rupture during launch
8/17/196419:57 utc6 h 18 mCOUNTERSNear Ft. Churchill, Canada
6/12/1965 11 hdE/dx AND E DETECTOR--- No Data ---
6/23/1965 12 h 30 mMEASUREMENT OF ENERGY SPECTRUM OF PRIMARY COSMIC RAYS--- No Data ---
6/23/1965 11 hLOW ENERGY GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
6/23/1965 9 h 30 mLOW ENERGY GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
6/25/1965 14 hCOSMIC RAYS COUNTER--- No Data ---
6/25/1965 13 h 30 mSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
6/30/1965 10 hLOW ENERGY GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
6/30/1965 ---LOW ENERGY GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDYBalloon lost lift, flight terminated
7/1/1965 11 hCERENKOV SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
7/5/1965 11 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE + MAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBER--- No Data ---
7/5/1965 ---COUNTER TELESCOPE + MAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBERBalloon failed at altitude
7/5/1965 1 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE + MAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBERBeacon failed. Terminated after 6 hours
7/5/1965 18 hCOSMIC RAYS COUNTER--- No Data ---
7/11/1965 9 hCERENKOV SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
7/11/196510:53 utc11 hEMULSIONS--- No Data ---
7/16/1965 13 hSCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
7/16/1965 10 hSPARK CHAMBER--- No Data ---
7/16/1965 5 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE + MAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBERFlight terminated prematurely, reason unknown
7/28/1965 ---COUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/28/196519:00 utcF 8 hELECTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
7/30/1965 10 hCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/1/1965 ---COUNTERS--- No Data ---
8/2/196512:34 utc8 h 45 mHODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
8/3/196520:17 utc23 h 25 mFAST NEUTRON DETECTOR + EMULSIONS--- No Data ---
8/4/1965 1 h 30 mCOUNTERS--- No Data ---
8/4/1965 13 h 30 mCOUNTER TELESCOPE + MAGNETIC SPARK CHAMBER--- No Data ---
8/6/1965 14 h 10 mSCINTILLATOR--- No Data ---
8/7/1965 ---COUNTER--- No Data ---
8/7/196511:30 utc9 h 50 mHODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
8/9/1965 17 h 30 mCOUNTERS--- No Data ---
8/9/196522:33 utc17 h 45 mFAST NEUTRON DETECTOR + EMULSIONS--- No Data ---
8/10/1965 8 hCOUNTER--- No Data ---
8/11/1965 ---SCINTILLATOR--- No Data ---
8/14/1965 ---SCINTILLATOR--- No Data ---
8/27/196511:30 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/15/19652:18 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/16/19651:25 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/16/196511:32 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/17/196510:58 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/17/19653:24 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/18/196510:51 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/20/196511:02 utc---SCINTILLATION COUNTER--- No Data ---
6/10/1966 17 hPRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION SPECTRA AND FLUX--- No Data ---
6/10/1966 19 hMAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
6/15/1966 17 h 30 mMAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
6/15/1966 10 h 25 mPRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION SPECTRA AND FLUX--- No Data ---
6/15/1966 17 h 25 mMEASUREMENTS OF SPECTRUM AND FLUX OF HEAVY NUCLEAR PARTICLES--- No Data ---
6/20/1966 20 h 50 mPRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION SPECTRA AND FLUX--- No Data ---
6/27/1966 3 h 50 mVERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DUST AND OZONE--- No Data ---
6/27/1966 15 hMEASUREMENTS OF SPECTRUM AND FLUX OF HEAVY NUCLEAR PARTICLES--- No Data ---
6/27/1966 16 h 25 mMAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
6/30/1966 3 h 55 mVERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DUST AND OZONE--- No Data ---
7/3/1966 10 h 25 mMEASUREMENTS OF SPECTRUM AND FLUX OF HEAVY NUCLEAR PARTICLES--- No Data ---
7/7/1966 16 h 25 mGALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
7/11/1966 15 h 30 mMEASUREMENTS OF SPECTRUM AND FLUX OF HEAVY NUCLEAR PARTICLES--- No Data ---
7/13/1966 20 hGALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
7/13/1966 12 h 40 mGALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
7/14/1966 18 h 50 mMEASUREMENTS OF SPECTRUM AND FLUX OF CHARGED PARTICLES--- No Data ---
7/15/1966 21 h 25 mMEASUREMENTS OF SPECTRUM AND FLUX OF HEAVY NUCLEAR PARTICLES--- No Data ---
7/16/196610:20 utc18 hFAST NEUTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
7/16/1966 11 h 25 mGALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
7/16/1966 21 hGALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
7/24/19663:31 utc21 hFAST NEUTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
7/25/196620:00 utcF 11 h 25 mELECTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
7/26/19669:41 utc18 hHODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/26/1966 15 h 30 mMEASUREMENTS OF SPECTRUM AND FLUX OF HEAVY NUCLEAR PARTICLES--- No Data ---
7/30/1966 19 h 15 mCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/30/19669:16 utc14 h 15 mHODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/31/196612:00 utc5 hFAST NEUTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
8/2/1966 19 h 25 mGALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
8/6/1966 19 h 25 mGALACTIC COSMIC RAYS STUDY--- No Data ---
8/6/19669:28 utc15 h 40 mHODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
8/7/19668:01 utc15 h 15 mSPARK CHAMBERAt coordinates 59° 49' N / 103º 32' W, Canada
8/7/1966 18 h 50 mCOUNTER TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/25/19661:16 utc---X-RAY COUNTER--- No Data ---
8/29/196620:15 utc---X-RAY COUNTER--- No Data ---
8/29/19669:30 utc---X-RAY COUNTER--- No Data ---
8/30/19664:45 utc---X-RAY COUNTERBalloon burst at 25.000 ft due to severe wind shear
9/2/19669:36 utc20 hX-RAY COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/4/19665:17 utc20 hX-RAY COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/6/19669:20 utc20 hX-RAY COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/6/19665:30 utc---X-RAY COUNTERUnsuccessful flight
9/7/196621:08 utc20 hX-RAY COUNTERUnsuccessful flight
9/8/196610:25 utc20 hX-RAY COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/16/1966 20 hX-RAY COUNTER--- No Data ---
9/17/1966 ---X-RAY COUNTERBalloon burst at 17.000 ft
9/18/1966 20 hX-RAY COUNTER--- No Data ---
6/17/196710:27 utc~ 17 hELECTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
6/26/19674:42 utc---HODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/2/19673:58 utc~ 14 hELECTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
7/9/19673:23 utc~ 16 hELECTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
7/12/196711:16 utc---HODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/21/19673:20 utc~ 18 hELECTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
7/31/196710:07 utc---HODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/1/1968 F 9 h 42 mEMULSION PACK AND PLATES--- No Data ---
7/7/1968 ---LEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/16/196800:27 utc16 h 50 mMAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
7/18/19681:20 utc---HODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/21/19681:04 utc18 h 15 mMAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
7/23/196820:07 utc---HODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/29/19681:31 utc23 h 40 mMAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
7/31/196812:30 utcF 9 hELECTRON DETECTOR--- No Data ---
8/1/196817:15 CST---INFRARED SPECTROMETER + 3 PHOTOMETERS--- No Data ---
8/6/1968 ---ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS--- No Data ---
8/7/1968 ---ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS--- No Data ---
8/22/1968 19 hNEUTRON SPECTROMETER + NUCLEAR EMULSIONS--- No Data ---
9/25/1968 ~ 11 hLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
4/18/1969 ---ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS--- No Data ---
6/17/1969 ---LEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
6/21/1969 ---LEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/7/1969 ---LEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/11/196920:48 utc---HODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/18/19695:00 utc---HODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
8/2/1969 ---ELECTRIC FIELD SENSORS--- No Data ---
8/3/1969 ---ELECTRIC FIELD SENSORS--- No Data ---
8/8/1969 ---ELECTRIC FIELD SENSORS--- No Data ---
8/9/1969 ---ELECTRIC FIELD SENSORS--- No Data ---
2/13/1970 ---ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS--- No Data ---
6/22/19706:02 utc14 h 30 mPROTON ALPHA ELECTRON SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
6/22/1970 ---LEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
6/25/19700:33 utc14 h 30 me± MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
6/27/1970 ---LEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/5/19702:50 UTC14 h 40 me± MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
7/7/19706:58 utc---HODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/7/1970 ---LEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/11/197017:57 utc14 he± MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
7/11/1970 ---APOLLO MISSION HELMET (Cosmic Ray Study)--- No Data ---
7/18/197023:44 utc22 he± MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
7/18/197020:40 utc---HODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/29/1970 ---ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS--- No Data ---
6/30/1971 11hLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/11/1971 10h 12mLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/18/1971 12h 35mHODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/21/1971 13h 5mHODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/28/1971 10h 20mLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/3/19723:59 utc1 hMAGNETIC SPECTROMETERPremature Termination
7/7/197200:56 utc17h 15mMAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
7/20/197200:51 utc19h 35mMAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
7/21/197221:59 utc23h 10mHODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/22/19727:30 local23h 50mHEAVY ION TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/22/1972 19h 35mLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/26/1972 17h 55mLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/26/1972 20h 35mHODOSCOPE--- No Data ---
7/27/1972 15h 50mLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/15/1973 ---PAYLOAD UNKNOWNRecovered in Siberia, USSR
7/18/1973 ---LEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/24/1973 ---LEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/4/1974 F 10 h 30 mLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/8/1974 ---PROJECT STRATOPROBE--- No Data ---
7/15/197418:30 cst---MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
7/15/1974 F 8 h 50 mLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/16/1974 ---CHEMILUMINISCENT PROBE--- No Data ---
7/21/1974 ---MULTIELEMENT TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/22/197423:17 utc~ 22 hPROJECT STRATOPROBE--- No Data ---
8/3/1974 ---MULTIELEMENT TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
8/3/197420:30 cst16.4 hMAGNETIC SPECTROMETER--- No Data ---
8/8/1974 11 hPARTICLE TELESCOPE--- No Data ---
7/12/1975 F 12 h 40 mLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---
7/19/1975 F 13 h 30 mLEE (Low Energy Electrons)--- No Data ---